Causality is a tricky thing. In science, medicine, economics and, indeed, most endeavors, figuring out what circumstances led something to occur takes careful experimentation and observation. So, it should not be surprising that root cause analysis of corruption issues can be more challenging than expected. In the first article in this series exploring root cause analysis, we explained that, at base, it involves asking why something happened. In this second article, we offer specific and actionable advice on what questions to ask, which data to examine and how to evaluate the role culture played. In the final article, we will address determining when to end an inquiry and the importance of looking beyond individual investigations. See “Internal Investigations in the Life Sciences Industry” (Jul. 8, 2020).